Nutrition (Study memo)


  1. Which statement describes a feature of irritable bowel syndrome?
    Effective treatments may include peppermint oil.が正解では?
    • Abdominal discomfort is usually mildではない。
  2. What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
    • Epiglottis!
  3. When ingested in large quantities, the sugar alternative sorbitol and the fat alternative olestra are known to induce ____.
    1. diarrhea
  4. Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
    1. it is caused by alternate tightening and relaxing of circular and longitudinal muscles
  5. Which substance stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
    1. secretin
  6. The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release ____. –
    1. cholecystokinin – controls the release of bile into the small intestine
  7. After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
    1. Approximately neutral????
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  1. Based on her history, which of the following is the most likely explanation for Mrs. Treat’s sudden onset diarrhea?
    1.  foodborne illness (foodborne-食物由来の
  2. What is the most likely cause of Mrs. Treat’s heartburn?
    1. foodborne illnessではない。
    2. stress associated with the family reunionではない。
  3. Mrs. Treat notes that her heartburn got worse while she was at the family reunion. Why might that be?
    1. Because trying to keep an eye on her grandchildren left her exhausted, Mrs. Treat went to lay down for a nap right after lunch. かな???
  4. Mrs. Treat’s niece, who has always enjoyed excellent health and has never had any serious digestive illnesses, announces to the family that she has gone gluten-free and has never felt better. She urges Mrs. Treat to also go gluten-free. Should Mrs. Treat do so? . Only if she wants to, since there is no evidence that going gluten-free is beneficial to the general population
  5. Mrs. Treat’s cousin is opposed to the use of over-the-counter medications and takes Andria to task for her use of antacids. What might Mrs. Treat do to reduce her risk of heartburn?
    1. refrain from the use of tobacco
  6. Mrs. Treat’s brother is not at the reunion because he is in the hospital with symptoms including a condition in which the intestinal walls develop bulges in weakened areas. What is his most likely diagnosis?
    1. diverticulosis
  7. Mrs. Treat’s twin sister reports that one of their best friends from high school has recently been diagnosed with a peptic ulcer. What is one of the most common causes of ulcers?
    1. H. pylori infection
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  1. The DRI for calcium for 19-30 year old males is 1,000 mg. How does the amount of calcium in this 2,000-calorie menu compare to the DRI?There is more calcium in the menu than the DRI
  2. This 2,000-calorie menu meets Reuben’s DRI for all of the following, EXCEPT: Vitamin D
  3. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2,300 mg. How does Reuben’s intake from this 2,000-calorie menu compare to the UL for sodium? He ate 965 mg sodium more than the U
  4. Reuben’s dietary fiber intake from this one-day 2,000 calorie menu fell just short of his DRI of 38 grams dietary fiber. How many more grams of fiber would he have needed to eat to meet his dietary fiber DRI? 5gではない。
  5. The Daily Values (DV) on the Nutrition Facts panel of a food label differ from the DRIs. The DV for total fat for a 2,000-calorie diet is 65 g total fat. What percent daily value (%DV) for total fat did Reuben eat in this one-day 2,000-calorie menu? 111% DV
  6. How does Reuben’s iron intake on this 2,000-calorie diet menu compare to his DRI? He ate almost twice as much iron as he needs
  7. Which MyPlate groups did Reuben exceed his servings for on this 2,000-calorie diet menu?Protein and Fruits
  8. According to the MyPlate Analysis report, empty calories should exceed no more than 395 calories for someone like Reuben. How many empty calories did Reuben consume on this 2,000-calorie diet menu? 333 empty calories
  9. The MyPlate Analysis report generates data for Reuben based on a 2892 calorie pattern. At this level, how many oz equivalents of grains does MyPlate say Reuben should be eating per day? 10 oz. eq.
  10. The MyPlate Analysis report includes goals to help “Vary Your Veggies!” How many Dry Beans & Peas should Reuben aim to eat weekly? 2.5 cups weekly

Ch5. The lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipid, and Steroids

5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides

  • Lipids : a family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.
  • Fatty Acids
    • acid group (COOH) and methyl group(CH3)
    • The length of the carbon chain
    • The number of Double bonds
      • saturated fatty acid
      • unsaturated fatty acid
        • monounsaturated fatty acid
        • polyunsaturated fatty acid
          • linoleic acid
          • Linolenic acid
    • The location of double bonds
      • Omega 3 fatty acid
      • Omega 6 fatty acid
  • Triglycerides
    • glycerol
  • Characteristics of solid fats and oils
    • Firmness
    • Stability
      • oxidation
        • the process of a substance combining with oxygen; reactions involve the loss of electrons.
      • antioxidants
        • as a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen.
    • Hydrogenation
      • cis : on the near side of
      • trans : on the other side of
    • Trans-Fatty Acids
      • behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease
      • Conjugated linoleic acids
        • naturally occurring trans-fatty acids

5.2 The Chemist’s view of phospholipids and sterols

  • Phospholipids
    • best known phospholipids is
      • lecithin : glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate-choline
    • emulsifier
    • Phospholipids in Foods
    • Roles of phospholipids
      • cell membrane
  • Sterols
    • multiple ring structure
    • cholesterol : the most well known sterol
      • the liver makes 800-1500ml/day
      • Daily Value is 300mg/day
    • Sterols in foods
    • Roles of sterols
      • Bile acids
      • The sex hormones
      • The adrenal hormones
      • Vitamin D
      • ——–
        • exogenous
        • endogenous
      • harmful
        • plaque
        • atherosclerosis

5.3 Digestion, absorption, transport of lipids

  • the GI tract receives
    • 50-100g triglycerides
    • 4 to 8 g of phospholipids
    • 200 to 350 mg of cholesterol
  • Lipid digestion -the goal : monoglycerides
    • in the mouth
    • in the stomach
    • in the small intestine
      • cholecystokinin (CCK), which signals the gallbladder to release its stores of bile
      • Bile acids often pair up with an amino acid(hydrophilic)
      • Pancreatic lipase : the major fat-digesting enzymes. fatty acidsを取り除いて、monoglyceridesを残す。
    • Bile’s routes
  • Lipid absorption
    • micelles : tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion.
    • Chylomicrons : the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
  • Lipid transport
    • Chylomicrons
    • VLDL (Very-low-density- lipoproteins)
      • cell remove triglycerides
    • LDL (Low-density-lipoproteins)
      • cells remove triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids.
    • HDL (High-density-lipoproteins)
      • cells release cholesterol and HDL carries it back to the liver for recycling or disposal
      • anti-inflammatory properties
    • Health implications
      • The blood lipid linked most directly to heart disease is LDL cholesterol

5.4 Lipids in the Body

  • Roles of Triglycerides
    • adipose tissue
    • adipokines : proteins that help regulate energy balance and influence several body functions
      • adipokine resistin is increased with obesity
        • promotes inflammation and insulin resistance
      • adipokine adiponectin :
        • protect against inflammation, diabetes, and heart disease
  • Essential Fatty Acids
    • Linoleic acid and the Omega-6 family
      • linoleic acid -18C, omega-6
      • arachidonic acid – 20C, omega-6 :効用、役割はどないな感じなんでしょう?
        • can be conditionally essential nutrient
    • Linolenic acid and the Omega-3 family -visual acuity and cognitive development
      • linolenic acid -18C, omega-3
      • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) -20C, omega-3
        • small amount from linolenic acid
      • DHA(docosahexaenoic acid) -22C, omega-3
        • small amount from linoleic acid
    • Eicosanoids
      • derivatives of 20C
      • biologically active compounds that help to regulate blood pressure, bloot clotting, and other body functions
      • ex) prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotriens
    • Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio
    • Fatty acid deficiencies
  • A preview of lipid metabolism
    • Storing fat as fat
      • LPL -lipoprotein lipase
        • an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into the cells
    • Using fat for energy

5.5 Health effects and recommended intakes of saturated fats, Trans-fats, and Cholesterol

  • Health effects of saturated fats, Trans fats, and cholesterol
    • blood lipid profile
    • Heart disease
      • CVD cardiovascular disease
    • Cancer
    • Obesity
  • Recommended intakes of saturated fat, Trans fat, and Cholesterol

5.6 Health effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats

  1. Health effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Other diseases
    • Omega-3 Supplements
  2. Recommended intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
  3. From guidelines to groceries
    • Proteins foods
    • Milk and milk products
    • Vegetables, fruits, and grains
    • Steroid fats and oils
    • Read food labels
    • Fat replacers
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  1. ——–
  2. What should Tom notice about the cholesterol content of these foods?
    1. NO -d. High cholesterol foods also have higher protein contents.
    2. NO -a.Foods that have no trans fats typically have higher levels of cholesterol.
    3. NO b
    4. NO c
    5. YES e????
  3. Even though eggs are a significant source of cholesterol, what other information on the nutrition label should Tom consider if he decides to buy eggs?
    1. NO-Eggs have the lowest trans fat content of all protein sources.
  4. Which of the foods has the lowest unsaturated fat content per serving?
    1. YES Salmon!!!
  5. Which of the foods has the highest unsaturated fat content per serving? 
    1. Peanut butter !!!!!!!!! YES!
  6. Which food is highest in saturated fat?
    1. Pepperoni
  7. Which food is lowest in saturated fat?
    1. Salmon
  8. What is the relationship between fat content and calories in Tom’s food selections? 
    1. NO -Calorie content increases as total fat content decreases.
    2. NO -Calorie content is unrelated to total fat content.
    3. YES B?????

  1. Reuben has recently taken up weight lifting and his friends at the gym mistakenly believe they should eat more protein to build muscle. The DRI for protein for healthy adults is 0.8 g per kg body weight. If Reuben weighs 205 lbs (93 kg), how many grams protein per kg body weight did he eat on this day? -1.7g/kg
  2. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein is 10-35% of calories. What percent of calories in this one-day menu come from protein? -39% calories from protein
  3. This one-day menu body builder menu is unbalanced because it contains insufficient micronutrients and a skewed macronutrient distribution. Which macronutrients fall outside of the recommended Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)? -Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat
    1. Protein 15-25% —– 39.3% too much
    2. Fat 20-35% ——-19% short
    3. CHO 45-65% —–41% short
  4. One of the drawbacks of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is that it contains too much of some nutrients and not enough of others. This one-day menu contains insufficient: -Water (moisture)
  5. A very high protein diet such as this body builder diet is likely to leave Reuben feeling constipated because it does not contain enough: -Dietary fiber
  6. Using the Intake vs. Goals report, determine how many excessive calories from protein this one-day body builder diet provides. (Excessive calories from protein = calories from protein in intake minus calories from protein in DRI.) -319 calories from protein
  7. This one-day body builder diet provides more than 100% of the DRI for all of the following, EXCEPT: -Calories
  8. If Reuben were to maintain this diet for a period of time, he would likely experience fatigue and headaches due to inadequate carbohydrate intake. How many more grams of carbohydrate per day would Reuben need to eat in order to meet the 45-65% Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) recommendation for carbohydrate? (Use his intake level of 1576 calories to first calculate 45-65% calories from carbohydrate, and then convert to grams to answer this question.) -He would need to eat 14-93 extra grams of carbohydrate
  9. Reuben exceeded his DRI for protein on this day by approximately: -2.1 times
  10. Along with a balanced diet, weight-bearing exercise promotes bone mineral density. Reuben’s body builder diet would be unhealthy for his bones over the long term because it is: Inadequate in vitamin D and excessive in calcium

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Ch6 Protein: Amino Acids)

  1. —-
  2. —-
  3. The Daily Value (DV) for saturated fat on the Nutrition Facts panel is 20 grams per day. What percent daily value (%DV) saturated fat does the Day 1 menu provide? -300%
  4. The Daily Value (DV) for saturated fat on the Nutrition Facts panel is 20 grams per day. Which one item on the Day 1 menu provides more than 100% DV for saturated fat per serving? – Beef, Ground, Patty, 23% Fat, Raw (8 ounces)
  5. Swapping low-fat (1%) or nonfat (skim) milk for whole milk is a good way to reduce saturated fat intake. How many grams of saturated fat do you eliminate from your diet if you replace Milk, Whole, 3.3% (8 fluid ounces) with Milk, Low Fat, 1% (8 fluid ounces)? -a. 3 grams saturated fat
  6. The DRI for saturated fat recommends less than 10% of total calories. Use the Fat Breakdown reports to determine which statement is correct. -Day 2 provides less than 10% of calories from saturated fat and Day 1 provides more than 10% of calories from saturated fat
  7. Using the Fat Breakdown Report, put the types of fat in order from least percentage of calories to greatest percentage of calories for Day 2. –Trans fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Saturated fat, Monounsaturated fat
  8. Which food has the greatest percentage of calories coming from fat? -No. Fish Sticks, Frozen, Heated (6 items).  —No-Salmon, Atlantic, Wild, Raw (6 ounces)andSalmon, Atlantic, Wild, Raw (6 ounces). ———-Avocado, California (0.22 items)???
  9. Stavos has a strong family history of heart disease. Replacing butter with olive oil or canola oil is one way he can help to reduce his chances of heart disease. Why is replacing Butter, Salted (1 tablespoon) with Oil, Olive (1 tablespoon) a heart healthy move for Stavos? -Oil, Olive (1 tablespoon) has less saturated fat than Butter, Salted (1 tablespoon)
  10. Both saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids raise LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. How does the trans fat content of the Day 1 menu compare to the Day 2 menu? -Day 1 contains 2 g trans fat and Day 2 contains 1 g trans fat
  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are two types of omega-3 fatty acids. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends eating at least 8 ounce equivalent of a variety of seafood each week to provide an average of 250 mg EPA and DHA per day (2 types of linolenic, omega-3 fatty acids). How many mg of linolenic fatty acids are in Salmon, Atlantic, Wild, Raw (6 ounces)? (Hint: 1000 mg = 1 g.) -500 mg
  12. Some research suggests that the ratio of linoleic to linolenic fatty acids may affect cardiovascular health. Suggested ratios range from 4:1 to 10:1. What is the ratio of linoleic to linolenic fatty acids in Day 2? -NO 8:1, 10:1, and 4:1——–YES-13:1!!!!!!!!!
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Ch7 Metabolism

  1. ——Case Study 7A: Excessive Alcohol Use—————
  2. How much alcohol can the liver process per hour? -½ ounce
  3. How many ounces of 80 proof liquor are in a single serving? -1 ½ ounces
  4. If Mr. Q. drinks a quart of beer, how many servings of alcohol is he consuming? – nearly 3 servings
  5. The maximum rate of alcohol breakdown is determined by the amount of what? – Alcohol dehydrogenase
  6. Mr. Q. is concerned about his recent fatty liver diagnosis. Which of the following is true of fatty liver? -. In the early stages, it is reversible with abstinence from alcohol.
  7. Mr. Q. had blood alcohol concentrations well above the legal limit when he was arrested for his DUIs. At what blood alcohol concentration do unconsciousness, coma, and death become likely outcomes? -.40
  8. If he continues drinking, how might alcohol affect Mr. Q.’s health? – He will have an increased risk of colon cancer.
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Ch8 Energy balance and body composition

  1. Case Study 8A: Improving Body Composition
  2. What is Rick’s BMI? 29.4
  3. What is Rick’s weight category? upper range of overweight
  4. Based on his BMI, in what range is Rick’s body fat likely to be? 27-32%
  5. Suppose Rick wanted to reduce his BMI to 27. What would his target weight be? 188
  6. What is Rick’s BMR at his current weight? 1961
  7. Suppose Rick engages in light-to-moderate intensity weight lifting. How many calories will he expend per hour of activity? Use his current weight in your calculations. 295
  8. If Rick swims for 30 minutes at a speed of 45 yards per minute, how many calories will he expend? Use his current weight in your calculations. 357
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Ch9 Ch9. Weight management: Overweight,

  1. DWP Skill Building 9: Bariatric Surgery
  2. ——-
  3. ——–
  4. ——-
  5. Ten years ago Stavos weighed 275 pounds and had blood pressure and severe sleep apnea. He had gastric bypass weight loss sugery and followed a puree diet for the first 3 weeks after surgery. He then advanced to the soft foods diet for 6 weeks. The post bariatric surgery diet is low in calories and high in protein. What percent of calories come from protein in this one-day soft foods diet menu? -36% calories from protein
  6. The normal stomach can hold 4-6 cups of food. After gastric bypass surgery, the stomach is reduced to the size of a walnut. As a result, liquids should not be consumed with food, but taken either 30 minutes before or after food, and in small quantities. How many total cups of fluid are in this one day soft diet? (Hint: 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces; add the fluid ounces of milk, tea, and water from the menu, do not use the H20 in g column information from the Intake Spreadsheet to answer this question.) – 8 cups of fluid
  7. The DRI for protein for healthy adults is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram body weight (g/kg). Even though the post bariatric surgery diet is high in protein, it provides less than this because of the restricted calories and very high starting weight of the patients. At the time he was eating this diet, Stavos weighed 250 pounds. How many grams of protein per kilogram was he eating on this diet? (Hint: 2.2 pounds = 1 kg.) – 0.5 g/kg protein
  8. The post-bariatric surgery diet is very low in sugar, because high sugar foods promote the rapid movement of food through the small intestine, causing dumping syndrome. Much of the carbohydrate in this menu comes from the protein shakes made with nonfat milk and protein powder. What percent of the total calories from carbohydrate come from the protein shakes (a shake includes the milk and protein powder and note there are 4 separate shakes in the daily menu)? – 32% of calories from carbohydrate
  9. The MyPlate Analysis shows that this post-bariatric surgery soft foods diet contains none of which food group? – Grains
  10. From the MyPlate Analysis, which food group in this one day menu comes closest to meeting the recommended daily intake goal? – Dairy
  11. Because of the small capacity of the stomach following bariatric surgery and the naturally-occurring sugar content of fruit, the half-cup of strawberries under snacks would have to be spread out over 2 separate snacks of 1/4 cup at each snack. How many calories are in a quarter cup (0.25 cup) serving of strawberries? -12 calories
  12. A healthy adult needs approximately 20-25 calories per kilogram of body weight per day to lose weight. Following bariatric weight loss surgery, calorie intake falls below this to support rapid weight loss. At the time he was eating this diet, Stavos weighed 250 pounds. How many calories per kilogram was he eating on this diet? (Hint: 2.2 pounds = 1 kg) – 6 calories per kilogram
  13. A diet to promote weight loss or weight maintenance is usually recommended to be high in fiber (at least 30 grams per day). The post-bariatric surgery diet is low in fiber as high fiber foods tend to be poorly tolerated following surgery. How many grams of fiber are in this one-day menu?
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Ch14 Physical

  1. ——-
  2. ———
  3. ——–
  4. ———–
  5. ————
  6. Kimmy is training for a half marathon. As her event date approaches, she is increasing the percentage of calories from carbohydrate in order to maximize her glycogen stores. What percent of calories in the Day 1 high carbohydrate meal come from carbohydrate?  – b. 62% calories from carbohydrate
  7. Pregame meals should contain carbohydrate-rich foods low in fat and fiber. Bulky, fiber-rich foods such as raw vegetables or high–bran cereals, although usually desirable, are best avoided just before competition. How many grams of fiber are in the Day 2 high carbohydrate meal? – 4 grams of fiber
  8. Some sports nutrition experts recommend a 4:1 ratio of grams of carbohydrate: protein for optimal recovery following physical activity. Although Kimmy is eating these meals as pre-game meals, which meal comes closest to meeting the 4:1 ratio of grams of carbohydrate:protein? – Day 2 meal 
  9. In addition to carbohydrate and some fat, physically active people like Kimmy need protein. Plant-based foods contain carbohydrate and some protein. Which non-animal food (i.e., plant-based food) contains the most protein per serving? – NO Milk, Low Fat, 1% (12 fluid ounces) ———— Bagel, Wheat (1 item)かな?
  10. Some sports nutrition professionals recommend a range of 6 to 10 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight for athletes in heavy training. If Kimmy weighs 160 pounds, how many grams of carbohydrate per day should she be eating using this recommendation? (Hint: 1 kg = 2.2 pounds.) – 436-727 grams carbohydrate 
  11. During her training, Kimmy is trying to eat a diet that is high in carbohydrate (60-70% of calories), moderate in fat (20-35% of calories), and adequate in protein (10-20% of calories). Which day’s meal has the lowest percentage of calories from fat? – NO DAY1 〜day 2 かな?
  12. To determine how much fluid she should be replenishing with, Kimmy weighs herself before and after a 2-hour run and finds she loses 3 pounds during the run. If approximately 2 cups of fluid weighs 1 pound, and she should replace her lost fluid pound-for-pound, how many fluid ounces total should Kimmy replenish with during and after her run? (Hint: 1 cup fluid = 8 fluid ounces.) -48 fluid ounces
  13. Running 2 hours per day greatly increases Kimmy’s daily caloric needs. How many calories does she burn per hour when she runs at an 8 minute mile pace? – 907 calories per hour
  14. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) refers to energy expended to maintain basic vital body functions such as respiration, muscle tone, and nerve function. BMR does not count the calories burned during exercise. How do the number of calories Kimmy burns during her 2-hour run compare to the other 22 hours of basal metabolism in her day? – She burns about the same amount of calories in 2 hours of running as she does in 22 hours of basal metabolism
  15. Because oxygen is required for aerobic energy metabolism, poor iron status in athletes can seriously affect training and performance. In addition to being high in carbohydrate, enriched grain products contain added iron. Which food item contains the most iron?  – Bagel, Wheat (1 item)
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Ch18 Diet and health

18.1 Nutrition and Infectious diseases

  1. The immune system
    1. Phagocytes : neutrophils and macrophages
    2. lymphocytes : B cells
    3. lymphocytes : T cells
  2. Nutrition and immunity
  3. HIV and AIDS
  4. Inflammation and chronic diseases

18.2 Nutrition and chronic diseases

18.3 Cardiovascular disease

  1. How atherosclerosis develops
    1. Inflammation
    2. Plaques
    3. Blood clots
    4. Blood pressure
    5. The result : heart attacks and strokes
  2. Risk factors for coronary heart disease
    1. Age, gender, and family history
    2. High LDL and low HDL cholesterol
    3. High blood triglycerides
    4. High blood pressure (hypertension)
    5. Diabetes
    6. Obesity and physical inactivity
    7. Cigarette smoking
    8. Atherogenic diet
    9. metabolic syndrome
  3. Recommendations for reducing cardiovascular disease risk
    1. Screening for cardiovascular disease risk
    2. Lifestyle interventions

18.4 Hypertension

  1. How hypertension develops
  2. Risk factors for hypertension
  3. Treatment of hypertension
    1. weight control
    2. The DASH eating pattern
    3. Physical activity
    4. Medications

18.5 Diabetes mellitus

  1. How diabetes develops
    1. Diagnosis of diabetes
    2. Types diabetes mellitus
    3. Type 1 diabetes
    4. Type 2 diabetes
  2. Complications of diabetes
    1. Diseases of large blood vessels
    2. Diseases of the small blood vessels
    3. Diseases of the nerves
  3. Recommendations for diabetes
    1. Carbohydrate intake
    2. Carbohydrate sources
    3. Dietary fat
    4. Protein
    5. Alcohol
    6. Recommendations for Type 1 diabetes
    7. Recommendations for Type 2 diabetes

18.6 Cancer

  1. How cancer develops
    1. Environmental factors
    2. Dietary factors – cancer initiators
    3. Dietary factors – cancer promoters
    4. Dietary factors – antipromoters
  2. Recommendations for reducing cancer risks

18.7 Recommendations for chronic diseases

  1. Recommendations for the population
  2. Recommendations for individuals

Complementary and alternative medicine

  1. Defining complementary and alternative medicine
  2. Sound research, loud controversy
    1. Placebo effect
    2. Risks versus benefits
  3. Nutrition-related alternative therapies
    1. Foods
    2. Vitamin and mineral supplements
    3. Herbal remedies
    4. Herbal precautions
  4. Internet precautions
  5. The Consumer’s perspective

Ch18 ーーーーーーーーーーーーー

  1. DWP Skill Building 11: Diabetes Exchanges
  2. ーーーーーーー
  3. ーーーーーーーーー
  4. ーーーーーーーーーーー
  5. Sue is a 4-year-old girl who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when she was 1. Her parents have learned that spacing out Sue’s carbohydrates throughout the day helps to keep her blood sugar levels stable. Each meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) provides roughly how many grams carbohydrate per meal? - 30 grams carbohydrate per meal?
  6. The carbohydrate recommendation for people who have diabetes is the same as it is for people without diabetes: 45-65% of total calories should come from carbohydrate. What percent of calories in this menu come from carbohydrate? -49% of calories from carbohydrate
  7. Sue has Type 1 diabetes, meaning she does not produce any insulin. Her parents give her 1 unit of insulin for every 15 grams of carbohydrate they feed her. Just before her afternoon snack of Cereal, Granola, Prepared (0.25 cups), how many units of insulin should they prepare to inject? – 1 unit
  8. One of Sue’s mom’s friends said she heard people with diabetes should not have fruit because it contains sugar. Sue’s mom informed her that fruit is a very good carbohydrate source for people with diabetes because although it contains the natural fruit sugar fructose, it is also a good source of other nutrients and fiber. Fiber helps stabilize blood sugar. How does Sue’s daily fiber intake compare to her goal? –
    She ate 69% of her recommended fiber
  9. Children 4-18 years old, regardless of whether they have diabetes or not, should have 25-35% of their calories coming from fat. What percent of calories in this one-day menu come from total fat? – 35% calories from fat
  10. Sue’s parents are concerned because their daughter is somewhat picky about which foods she eats. They often worry about whether she is getting enough vitamins and if she might need a supplement. Which vitamin is Sue’s diet deficient in and from which she might benefit from a supplement to help meet her needs? – Vitamin D
  11. Last year Sue was admitted to the hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a severe condition that results in electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and the production of dangerous ketoacids. Since then Sue’s parents carefully watch her fluid intake as dehydration may be a symptom of DKA. How many more cups of fluid (called “Moisture” in the DWP reports) per day does Sue need to meet her fluid needs? (Hint: 1 g water = 1 ml water and there are 237 mls in 1 cup of water.) – About 2 ½ more cups
  12. Whereas the majority of people with Type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, people with Type 1 diabetes tend to be normal weight or may be even be underweight. As she is growing, Sue’s parents carefully watch her weight gain patterns and calorie intake to make sure Sue is progressing at the proper rate. How does Sue’s daily caloric intake on this one day compare to her calorie goals? – She is eating about as many calories as she needs
  13. As Sue ages, if she can keep her blood sugar well-controlled, she will have a lower risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Although she is young, maintaining a diet low in saturated and trans fat will further help to reduce heart disease risk. Which statement about the trans fat content of this one-day menu is correct? – This is a trans fat-free diet
  14. The exchange system is one approach to meal planning for people with diabetes. The exchange system works by grouping foods into lists or exchange groups with other foods of similar carbohydrate and calorie content. Which exchange group did Sue eat the greatest number of total exchanges from in this one day menu? – Bread or Starch.
  15. 快適な運用を追及した
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  1. Case Study 18A: Diets for Disease Prevention
  2. Which of the 10 top causes of death in the U.S. is related to nutrition?
  3. 快適な運用を追及した
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林 俊之介 ATC/CSCS/PHI Pilates Japan Instructor